Due to the modernization and industrialization, Carbon emission act in the atmosphere is increasing which caused the global warming. The earth surface’s temperature is increasing by 0.74 degree Celsius in twenty century. Temperature and precipitations have been the major climate variability and observed changes over time. In recent years, Nepal is experiencing visible impact of climate change on agriculture, biodiversity, health, tourism, and infrastructure and water resource. People’s life and livelihood especially in the developing countries have been badly affected by climate change. The effects of climate change on various sectors such as environment, economic, social, agricultural, livestock, watershed etc can be observed in Nepal for many decades. Many disasters events has been increased such as Drought, floods, hailstorms, avalanches, landslide, cold waves and hot and the considerable amount of losses has been recorded by disaster. This changing context in the climate, compelled to people to increase the capacity to cope with disasters.
Kaski district is also not an exception of this reality. Landslide, Floods, Soil erosion and Hailstorm have affected the community people every year. Due to the climate change, agricultural production has been decreased, water level is decreased and pest infection in crops is also observed. Due to this situation, People are compelled to use alternative source of income for their livelihood. Mostly youth are going foreign countries for earning. Due to the absence of youth in the village, agricultural production has been affected and most of the land is kept without farming and migration pattern is going on rapidly. Capacity of community people to cope with climate change risk is very low.
Therefore, the following work plan is proposed by MDO, Kaski and UNDP/CDRMP to make the disaster risk resilient communities with climate change adaptation capacities
Multi Hazard Risk Assessment
The following will be the major findings from the study
- Socio-economic data of community focusing on health, nutrition, cropping pattern, livelihood options, agricultural practices, literacy and empowerment, skills of women, existing livelihood, income generating activities, food sufficiency, diseases in community and treatment practices, sanitation and means of fuel etc.
- Major hazards of the community, vulnerable area and people in the watershed, hydro-meteorological hazards and trends and potential risks and estimated losses of life and property
- Existing agricultural practices especially crops grown, cropping pattern and productivity, adaptation practices, practices of land use in line of the Climate and Disaster risk reduction, indigenous technology to cope with climate and disaster risk reduction, early warning system, unity and harmony in the community and other current capacities of the community
- GIS/RS baseline data including land use/land cover, river network, road and trails, contours, settlements of VDCs
Integrated watershed management action plan with logical framework
Both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used for the study. The following participatory methods will be applied for the study.
Strengthening Capacity Of Communities, School And Local Government Agencies
- Community level: Six Community Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) committees in the six VDCs will be formed. Roles and responsibilities of the community will be developed and oriented. Operational guideline for CBDRM committees will be developed. Gender and social inclusion in each committee formation will be kept in mind. A strong institutional capacity of CBDRM will be developed by providing capacity building inputs. Training on CBDRM focusing on community based climate induced disaster mitigation techniques, early warning system, search and rescue, skill training for livelihood and first aid will be organized. Periodically coaching and follow up will be done by the project staff.
- School level: CBDRM Committee jointly with School Management Committee (SMC) will plan, design and conduct school based climate Change and DRR awareness activities in the school, located in the project implementation communities. MDO has established Eco Child Club in 55 schools which is promoting conservation and sanitation awareness at school and community level. Hazard and risk assessment of the school surroundings, awareness rising to the students by conducting various activities such as quiz, drawing competition, debate, speech etc. will be organized.
Coordination And Linkage With Stakeholders
MDO has good coordination with the VDC and other district stakeholders. At least two meetings, workshops, interactions will be conducted with the VDC and district stakeholders such as DDC, DDRC, district forest office, district soil conservation office, district agriculture office, media, technical/academic/research organization for coordination. VDC and district stakeholders will encourage visiting the project site for the realization of the situation of climate induced risk. Quarterly report of the project will be shared with the all concerned stakeholders. Stakeholder will be invited in the review and reflection process that they can understand the project progress, learning and challenges of Climate Risk Management (CRM). CRM issues will be mainstreamed in the planning process of VDC, DDC and other line agencies programs. All concerned stakeholders will encourage the mainstreamed the CRM issues in their planning and implementing process.
Sensitization, Awareness And Advocacy At Community Level
Sensitization of CRM as part of risk mitigation and preparedness activities will be carried out by different means of communication. Electronic as well as print media, IEC materials developments, training, workshops, will be conducted to disseminate the message materials such as posters, brochures, bags, T shirts, caps by identifying the appropriate message will be distributed to the community people for the sensitization of CRM.
Small Mitigation Measures To Support CRM
CRM initiatives for preparedness and mitigation involving environment and natural resources management initiatives linked and reinforce sustainable livelihood practices such as IG activities, agro forestry practices, plantation, drinking water source conservation, small mitigation measures for floods and river bank erosion (bio-engineering). All sites will be identified following the participatory interaction between local communities and CBDRM committee. The project has planned five most vulnerable sites for bio-engineering work. Mitigation activities will be designed that foster local environment, use low cost and local skills.
The following measures will be taken for the sustainability of the initiatives.
- Capacitate CBDRM committees for effective coordination, mainstreaming CRM in VDC and DDC periodic plan and internal resource mobilization
- Participation of local communities in each decision and action
- Coordinate with relevant stakeholders, government line agencies, research institutions, media, and civil society for resource sharing and link the program with the government initiatives
- Develop local resource person
- Establish and strengthening emergency fund
Planned Activities To Meet The Project Objectives
|1||Baseline Mapping/stock taking||Developed a detailed assessment report with implementable plan|
|2||Strengthening Capacity of the communities, school and local government agencies||Increased Capacity of the CBDRM, School and local government agencies to work on DRR and CCA|
|3||Coordination and linkage||Strengthened Coordination and linkage with VDC, DDC and other concerned stakeholders to carry out the project activities.|
|4||Sensitization, awareness and advocacy||Increased knowledge of community people and local journalist to work on Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation|
|5||Implementation of community based CRM and Initiatives including small mitigation measures||Reduced Disaster and Climate Risk at community level|
|6||Ensuring sustainability of the initiatives||Developed Sustainability mechanism|
This Programme is support by Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Programme/UNDP, Nepal and implement by MDO, Kaski